Into the Spaceship: A Visit to the Old Burroughs Wellcome Building


When the pharmaceutical firm Burroughs Wellcome chose to move its headquarters from suburban New York to North Carolina in 1969, it was a major turning point for the state’s growing Research Triangle Park (RTP). The park was founded in the late 1950s in a bid to attract higher-paying and more advanced industries (the word “high tech” was not common at the time) to a state that had traditionally been dependent on agriculture and low-wage industries such as textiles and furniture.  The pharma giant was one of RTP’s biggest gets after IBM, and the company  helped define the image of the park with the iconic building it commissioned by celebrated modernist architect Paul Rudolph.

I talk about the Burroughs Wellcome building — officially renamed the Elion-Hitchings building, after Nobel-prize-winning scientists Gertrude Elion and George Hitchings — in much greater depth in chapter four of my book-in-progress, Brain Magnet: Research Triangle Park and the Rise of the Creative City.  But I’d like to give readers a brief introduction to Elion-Hitchings, following a remarkable tour of the structure conducted as part of the Vernacular Architecture Forum’s annual conference, which was held last week in Durham, NC.

The building has changed hands over the years, as Burroughs-Wellcome merged with Glaxo and the biotech firm United Therapeutics (UT) ultimately purchased it in 2012.  Since then, UT has has moved to demolish parts of the structure while rehabilitating its most memorable and historic portions.  Some architectural critics and defenders of Rudolph’s legacy were unhappy with the company’s plans, but even maintaining such a mammoth structure (let alone remodeling it) is an understandably daunting and perhaps impossible task.  So far, UT has taken down about 400,000 square feet of space, though it argues that these facilities were mostly lab space added on to Rudolph’s original design — structures that George Smart, director of North Carolina Modernist Houses, suggests were “never particularly architecturally significant.”

In any case, the most recognizable portion of the building remains, albeit in lapsed condition after years of being unused and unoccupied.  UT plans to refurbish the remaining 160,000 square feet and install an exhibit dedicated to the history of the building and the scientists it is named after.  In the meantime, the company was generous enough to open up the building to members of VAF, an organization made up mostly of architects, historians, planners and preservationists.  Architecture geeks all, we were thrilled to get a rare peek into a piece of architectural and, indeed, cultural history.

Geeks among the possum and pine


From a distance, one can see the incongruity of the striking building and its bucolic surroundings.  Several friends independently offered similar reactions, all varying on the theme of “horrible postmodern Mayan temple.”


Here we see the famous facade, with its segmented spaces stacked like futuristic building blocks.



The rusting pylons of Rudolph’s jagged, angular design will benefit from a fresh coat of paint.



Hunter College planning professor Matthew Lasner takes a photo amid the flaking metal and paint in front of the building.


The University of Oregon’s Chris Bell enters the building, walking up steps of pink marble.  The floors of the building’s lobby were once covered in groovy orange and green carpet, lending warmth to the otherwise austere modernist aesthetic of the structure.


The Elion-Hitchings building has been described in many ways over the years, as a spaceship, honeycomb, or beehive.




The bottom floor looks out on to an area for relaxation and reflection, now overgrown with weeds.



The building features a seemingly inscrutable and complex system for numbering offices, likened by one tour participant to the “star dates” in the captain’s log on Star Trek. For previous owners Glaxo, ordinary numbers simply would not to do.


Rudolph’s design was meant to mirror the ridge of the building site, with chunks and plates cascading down either side of its overarching A-frame structure. This choice gives the building its strikingly lapidary or “stacked” visual aesthetic.



Windows frame the forested and rural surrounding the building like a landscape painting, both highlighting its verdant environment and emphasizing the distinction between its high-tech, artificial internal environment and the natural world around.





No longer supplied with power, the building becomes a dark warren of workspaces and hallways, occasionally illumined by natural light from outside. Undoubtedly Elion-Hitchings felt different when it was electrified and occupied, with the presence of people and the trappings of business, work, and research.  But the combination of small, confined workspaces and Rudolph’s motif of jutting angles throughout still must have resulted in a slightly claustrophobic feeling at times.  However, tour participant Cynthia de Miranda — an architectural historian whose father was a scientist at Burroughs-Wellcome — averred that the building always struck her as warm and pleasant during her visits as a child.


So many angles, so little time




The gilded fixtures of the executive bathroom (which even included a shower) would probably not pass muster with today’s C-suite elite.


The building retains its mix of geometry-fetishism and glorious 1970s chintz.


We leave through the empty, dust-covered lobby, anxious to get to our next tour stop on time.


The “executive entrance emergency telephone” — in a time before cell phones, some executive emergencies just couldn’t wait.



In the end, numerous tour participants could not escape the sense that, in its current form, Elion-Hitchings evokes a distinctly postapocalyptic vibe — like a remnant of a dead and forgotten civilization, overgrown as nature retakes the towering proof of human hubris.  One could imagine aliens coming to Earth and finding the structure well after humans have succeeded in wiping themselves out as a species.

As scholars and lovers of architecture, we look forward to the day when the building’s remainder is restored to its former greatness, an emblem of the wild aesthetic ambitions of modernism in its late heyday and the information economy at the moment of its emergence.  Love it or hate it, Rudolph’s design remains an impressively audacious creative gesture and an important part of the history of both architecture and Research Triangle Park.  The fact that it will be preserved is a heartening one in a culture that is all too often hasty to forget even the recent past, and Elion-Hitchings is definitely unforgettable.

Afterwards, VAF members yuk it up at the National Humanities Center in RTP

Author: Alex Sayf Cummings

Alex Sayf Cummings is an associate professor of history at Georgia State University, whose work deals with technology, law, public policy, and the political culture of the modern United States. Alex's writing has appeared in Salon, the Brooklyn Rail, the Journal of American History, the Journal of Urban History, Al Jazeera, and Southern Cultures, among other publications, and the book Democracy of Sound was published by Oxford University Press in 2013 (paperback, 2017). Alex can be followed on Twitter at @akbarjenkins.

46 thoughts

  1. Simply amazing, I worked in this building for many years, very fond memories of it. Wish I could tour it again one day.

  2. So sad that the building is in such disrepair – I remember when I first entered that building for my first job interview with BWCo (Burroughs Wellcome Company) … I was so lost! Even when I worked there for a couple of years, I remember following color-coded carpet to get to several labs! BTW, I retired after 20 years with that company (GSK) …

  3. I would love an opportunity to tour this building again some day! The memories these pictures brings back…….I didn’t realize how blessed I was for this to be my first job out of college!!! I was so spoiled!! Worked there 11 years.

    1. Hi! Thanks so much for reading my piece. I would love to interview you about your experiences working in RTP for the book I’m working on. (I’m a history professor at Georgia State.) Would you be interested in having a chat? You could reply to this comment or reach me at Thanks again!

  4. I interviewed for my 1st job out of collage there in 1972. Everything was so different, my hotel was where the parking deck is now located at RDU. I remember being driven on two lane roads through pine trees until this futuristic building rose up to greet me for my interview. The next day we flew to Greenville for my interview with folks at the production site. I would have been the first PKG Eng at Greenville. I took another position with another company. Eventually, I was hired at Glaxo in August 1983. In 1995 it came full circle with the merger of BW & Glaxo. I was back in the main building & the Greenville site. Great memories from both companies.

    1. Hello Bruce, I hope all is well with you? Found this site by accident and loved the tour through the building. Also found your little summary amusing re: “would have been the first PKG Eng at Greenville”, well, as you know, I beat you to it. I think you and I had a great time at the companies we worked for. I was sorry it did not work out for me to join Glaxo in ’95 when the companies merged. Good luck for the future.

  5. We moved to Durham 30 yrs ago when my husband was hired on as a research scientist with BW. He survived several mergers but “retired” in 2009 (not by choice). He worked for 23 years in the Elion-Hitchings building. Seeing the photos brings up so many memories….. Burroughs Wellcome was not just a company – it was a family, prior to all the mergers. Seeing the building in it’s current state – is sad but it’s good to hear they are refurbishing it. Many thanks to United Therapeutics for saving it!

  6. Thank you for the beautiful pictures! I will never forget the first time I drove up and saw this “out of this world spaceship/!” I spent many good years there, and was fortunate to be employed in such an incredible building, with incredible people. I still feel honored to have been part of the Burroughs Wellcome family!

  7. It was shocking to see the building in such disrepair. I missed the final tour opportunity. It was sad to see the once majestic building with rusting columns and peeling paint and so overgrown. I almost didn’t want my memories of the building tainted, but all of us who recall the vibrancy of this building are probably showing signs of aging and maybe neglect [you know what I mean–not enough exercise, too much stress and poor food choices over many years- 🙂 ] After 17 years in Medical, I left on my own steam before the mergers, following a marriage now in its 30th year. In spite of the challenges–there were several cultures existing, not always with ease, within those asymmetrical walls–I count myself very fortunate to have worked there. It was an amazing structure. We were young, and life was full of hope and promise. We were all witnesses, if not direct contributors, to amazing scientific discoveries and their promotion, during an exciting time for medical research. Remember when “generic” was a bad word. 🙂 I still avoid them.

    1. Dr. Anderson – thanks for commenting! I would love to interview you for the book I’m writing about the history of RTP. I am an associate professor of History at Georgia State University ( If you’d be interested in discussing your experiences working at BW and living in the Triangle, it would be great to have the opportunity to learn from you. Naturally you could reply to this comment, or reach me at alexcummings@gsu,edu.

  8. I worked in Chemistry in the building ’76-’86, then they moved all the chemists across the street to BW-North. It was exciting to work on the many projects coming through the pipeline during that era. I remember seeing George Hitchings & Trudy Elion in the hallways on a frequent basis; their Nobel prize announcement was an exhilarating moment in time. BW was not publicly traded when I started; the job recruiter bragged that their motto was “Research is our only stockholder”. Per the tour guides, the front of the building (facing Durham Freeway) was meant to mimic the front veranda of a southern main house, with the shaded porch area and columns. The architectural model actually had a statue of a unicorn where the flag pole was located. For those of you who don’t know, the BW logo was a unicorn; it represented (from medieval times) purity and its horn was supposed to be a panacea. BW sponsored an annual picnic on the grounds for employees & family members; it was a comfortable company to work for.

  9. Great article. Thank you! I recently learned from a former colleague that portions of the Main Building had been demolished. I was saddened to see the aerial views on Google, which reflect the demolition of the 110,000 SF Expansion Building, which was my first construction project when I joined BWCo,, as well as the demolition of the North Building, much of which was remodeled on another of my projects. As an engineer, you hope that the things you build will last a long time. The poorly designed and/or constructed reflecting pool was gone before I left. Now most of the rest of the projects I completed during my 14 years in RTP are also gone.

  10. I spent 32years with BWCo until the Glaxo merger (read takeover) and helped work on the layout of the labs to fit the 22.5 degree sloping walls of bright orange and blue. At that time, if any space was conceived to bring out the creative, inspirational, thoughts – this was it, in my opinion. I loved working there. We invented and developed more pharmaceutical products in those years before Glaxo than any other company in the world. We were “family” but more to the point we were colleagues who were allowed to trust the expertise of each other. Unfortunately, our altruistic nature for “helping sick people” rather than just making a profit left us vulnerable to being taken over and “the family” dispersed. I counted Elion and Hitchings as friends and am saddened to see how the building has been left to deteriorate.

  11. Have pictures been pulled from any archive that show the giant reflection ponds that were to the right hand side of the building between the parking lots. No one mentioned the films (Natalie Wood’s last film ‘BrainStorm’) and recent TV shows that were filmed there. What about where the flag pole is outside originally was suppose to have a giant unicorn standing there.

  12. Poignant pictures – I worked there for a couple of years in the late 70s as a newly minted post-doc – one of the happiest (although not the most productive!) periods in my life. A very warm environment. Many of the lessons that I absorbed in how to run a research lab kept me going throughout my career. I count myself very lucky to have been there at the time I was there, not least because I met my wife there.

  13. I have such special memories of my time at Burroughs-Wellcome. My first professional job was with Dr. Morton Harfenist on the third floor in the research wing from 1974-1980. Every Christmas there was a huge Christmas Tree in the lobby that almost reached the ceiling and the bottom was covered with several rows of the most beautiful poinsettia plants. With only about 400-500 employees in the entire building, it felt like a large family. The colors in the building were bold and bright, mostly dark blue and orange. As you entered the research area the carpet was orange and the administration side of the building had blue carpet. On the top floor of the administration wing the custom seats that ran around the walls were covered in a dark tan suede leather. The conference table in the boardroom was huge. The bottom was thick plexiglass and the top was covered in tan leather strips that were woven together. The food in the cafeteria was fantastic and the cost to the employees was subsidized by the company. I do recall some structural problems with the building. The walls were covered with a material embedded with small beige stones and as the building shifted, some of the stones would pop out. I was forever picking up little stones off the floor. And the library on the 3rd floor had leaks when it rained. For awhile there were sheets of plastic draped over some of the research shelves to protect them from water damage. You had to be careful when it rained, especially on the third floor, because there would be puddles of water that could cause someone to slip. My best memory is that Paul Rudolph designed the building to give and take, and the walls were set at 45 degree angles. Everything had to be custom produced during construction and some of the seams never seemed to be meet exactly together (the building was designed and built before CAD). But it was a fabulous experience to work at Burroughs-Wellcome and one that I will never forget. The people I worked with changed my life and I have nothing but fond memories of my time there.

    1. Thanks so much for sharing these wonderful details about your experience. I’m working on a book about RTP and would love to ask you some questions – I’m a GA State history prof and can be reached at

  14. Great report! I’m from Germany and a longyear fan of the Brainstorm movie. I know the building for years now but one thing is new for me and you get me the solution: I searched for the cantina building of the movie and your last picture from your meeting in the building of the National Humanities Center is it! I saw your team picture and this area is the first picture of the inhouse scenes of the cantina. 🙂

    1. Wow! This was a detail I hadn’t realized. As you know from the piece, this was a bus tour that I organized for the Vernacular Architecture Forum conference, and the first stop was Burroughs-Wellcome; the second was the Humanities Center, followed by visits to suburban homes in the adjacent community. I saw both BW and the NHC building as expressions of a similar architectural vision or aesthetic, and I’m writing about both of them in a chapter of the book I’m working on. However, I hadn’t placed the scene from the cafeteria as being from NHC. Thanks for reading, and thanks for the catch!

  15. I would like to know of any future opportunities to tour the building! I’ve been obsessed with this building ever since Brainstorm. It’s very evocative to me and sets my imagination in motion. I wish I was a gazillionaire so I could buy it and restore it.

  16. I have always loved this building! In 1991, when I was 46 years old, I won a Burroughs-Wellcome scholarship to graduate school. It was awarded to me in this building. They sponsored scholarships for people who had experienced significant adversity in their lives. I couldn’t believe that they would pay for my education – it was a real turning point in my life. I was proud to be a Burroughs-Wellcome Scholar!

  17. Loved this building. After meeting with their head of research in January, 1989, I organized an “invasion” of BW’s headquarters on April 21, 1989 that was pictured on the front page of Raleigh Durham papers. We were protesting the high price of AZT. The company didn’t budge, but in September, we shut down trading on the NY Stock Exchange, and BW lowered the price by 20% three days later. Here’s a pic of us being led out of the building in chain and handcuffs. We reimbursed BW for $10,000 in property damage, after sealing ourselves into an upper floor office.

    1. OMG!!! Forgive me for being unprofessional, but when I saw that it was you who had commented I was floored. I am a big fan of your work, and I use How to Survive a Plague often in my twentieth-century US course at Georgia State. I’m working on a book about RTP (in which Burroughs Wellcome figures prominently), and I would love to talk to you about your experiences at some point. Thanks for checking out the post and commenting!

  18. I worked in this complex for several years! Has the book on the history of RTP been completed yet? Are there any tours ever going to be planned before the last parts of the building are torn down (I am assuming some of it is still standing) I worked there when Glaxo merged with BW to create GW, then through the merger that created GSK as well.

    1. Thanks for reading and commenting! The book is pretty much done, but the editors at Columbia University Press are going over it — hopefully will be out in the next year. I was able to get a group of architecture historians into the building in 2016, due to the generosity of United Therapeutics, but I doubt that there are any regular tours. The main original part was planned to be restored as a historic building, as far as I understand, but I do not know where this stands now.

  19. Enjoyed reading the update on the building and sad that so much innovation in architecture didn’t have a reasonable life expectancy. I am also glad that one reader mentioned “Brainstorm” movie and while the article did mention the original orange carpet… it didn’t mention it was changed because during those first nights of occupancy, the building seemed to glow with that orange and night lights… Calls that the building was on fire were numerous.

  20. I interviewed with Dr. Elion back in the summer of 1970 as I was finishing up on my Master’s in Microbiology with a minor in Cell Biology. I was hired to work as a Research Scientist in her department, Experimental Therapy in the Immunology lab with Dr. Gerald Wolberg who was my boss. As the building was finished, we would take tours of the new areas as they opened. I worked for Trudy, as she wanted us to call her, and Jerry for 11+ years, when I quit to become a stay at home mom. I was there for the dedication and the subsequent removal of the outside slabs, shortly after that dedication. The noise was very disturbing, but we were warned when it was time to remove the slabs outside our lab. I was there during the filming of “Brainstorm.” One day we were told that we’d have to stay in our labs because they were filming a scene on the hall outside our labs on the second floor of the research wing. Another day I was eating lunch with co-workers in the cafeteria when the elevator opened and there was Natalie Woods on the elevator. I seem to remember that she died before the finishing of the movie and we were all left wondering how the film would turn out.

    I loved my job and actually broke down in tears when I went to tell Trudy that I was leaving my job. She was a wonderful role model for all of us in science and we all loved her. I found her to be very fair and open to those of us who worked for her. I was delighted when she and George Hitchings won the Nobel Prize. Not too many people can say that they worked for someone who did win one!

    1. Thank you so much for sharing your experiences! I wish I had heard from you sooner, as I just finished a book about RTP and sent it off to the publisher. I would still like to hear more about your story working at BW and living in the Triangle, though. (I’m an associate professor of History at Georgia State University, alexcummings at

  21. Finally looked up what has happened to B.W.Co., as my curiosity got the best of me. I was hired in February of 1972 as a Medical Sales Rep. for Westchester County, NY. Had my training at RTP, extensive as it was—like going back to college to learn about the sales, marketing, and Pharmacology of roughly 80 products then… The irony of my work for B.W. is that my territory in Westchester included the town of TUCKAHOE, the former home of B.W. One of my jobs during the year was to gift retired employees with turkeys and other food—all of whom
    stayed behind when B.W. made the move to RTP.

    i worked as a rep. for just over 3 years, during which time we as a sales staff were involved in the launch of a “Super” antibiotic called “Septra”, which we shared with Hoffman-LA Roche, as it had a sulfa ingredient in its makeup, as well as Trimethoprim…(Elion and Hitchings). We were told that this would be the be-all and end-all of all drugs in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections and Upper-respiratory…. Ironically, almost 30 years later, I was treated for a URI, and I asked my Urologist about using Septra—His comment—“Oh, no, we don’t use it–it no longer works!

    My last comment is this: After finding a business that suited me, I was engaged by a customer (Lawyer) about 20 years ago, who had just arrived back from London. I asked, “so, what were you doing in London?” “Oh, you wouldn’t have heard of this company for which we did legal work…” I persisted, and when he said Burroughs-Wellcome, I almost lost it…”I used to work for them- You say that you and your team have dismembered the last vestiges of the Wellcome trust?” ” Yes, the only remaining entity is the Wellcome Fund, which will go on…”
    I was absolutely shocked to hear that all of BW’ name brands had been sold off prior to its dismemberment.

  22. I just came from the building tonight. Sadly it is being demo’d (I’m nearly certain at least). But she is still a beauty. I’m staying nearby this summer so I have biked and jogged to every corner of the fenced in compound. I loved reading all of the comments and your piece above. Thanks!

    1. Wow! Thank you so much for reading and commenting. I would be really sad if they’re truly tearing it down – United Therapeutics said they were going to preserve the original part of it, though they removed some of the add-on labs. You might be Interested in my book which recently came out, which talks quite a bit about the architecture in RTP:

      1. Alex, thanks for mentioning your book! Bought on my Kindle now and I’m reading it in Germany now. 🙂

      2. I spent last night visiting one last time with my fam. They are definitely demo’g the inside and a side wall. All windows are out. Maybe making way for that museum ; )

        But such is life I guess. Such a sweet summer (we’re visiting from NYC) of visits. Psst if you enter in from the USPS parking road it’s a mile walk, bike, run to BW. And you can circumvent the fencing on Cornwallis.

        I’m writing to say how much I appreciate all the info here and in your book, which I’m reading. RTP is a landscape like I’ve never felt before. Kind of an awful pedestrian scale thanks to car travel, but soooo pastoral and lovely, better than average architecture within, no community center (save for USPS)…that’s where your text took over. Cary and surrounding city growth explained. Thank you!

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